The past year has been a trying time of turbulence and an especially challenging period for investors of all persuasions. For perspective let us review some stock market results so far in 2008. U.S. large company stocks as represented by the S&P 500 declined 11.9% during the first half of the year. The average U.S. stock declined 15.5%. International stocks have fared worse with the FTSE Euro Top 100 Index of large European companies declining 21.8% and the Tokyo Nikkei index declining 12%. Advocates of emerging market investing had an even more exciting ride. The Chinese Hong Kong index, which is open to foreign investors, declined 22.1%. China’s Shanghai index, open only to Chinese citizens, declined 49.6%. Meanwhile, the Indian market is down 41.4% during the first six months of 2008.